Logical Fallacies in Arguments

Begging the Question **

  1. Arguing in a Circle
  2. Question-begging Language
  3. Complex Question
  4. Question-begging Definition

Inconsistency

  1. Incompatible Premises
  2. Contradiction btw Premise and Conclusion

Deductive Inference

  1. Denying the Antecedent
  2. Affirming the Consequent
  3. False Conversion
  4. Undistributed Middle Term
  5. Illicit Distribution of an End Term

Irrelevance **

  1. Irrelevant Authority **
  2. Appeal to Common Opinion
  3. Genetic Fallacy
  4. Rationalization
  5. Drawing the Wrong Conclusion
  6. Using the Wrong Reasons

Appeal to Emotion

  1. Appeal to Force or Threat
  2. Appeal to Tradition
  3. Appeal to Self-Interest
  4. Playing to the Gallery

Linguistic Confusion

  1. Equivocation
  2. Ambiguity
  3. Misleading Accent
  4. Illicit Contrast
  5. Argument by Innuendo
  6. Misuse of a Vague Expression
  7. Distinction without Difference

Unwarranted Assumption

  1. Fallacy of the Continuum
  2. Fallacy of Composition
  3. Fallacy of Division
  4. False Alternatives
  5. Is-Ought Fallacy
  6. Wishful Thinking
  7. Misuses of a Principle
  8. Fallacy of the Mean
  9. Faulty Analogy

Missing Evidence **

  1. Insufficient Sample
  2. Unrepresentative Data
  3. Arguing from Ignorance
  4. Contrary to Fact Hypothesis
  5. Fallacy of Popular Wisdom
  6. Special Pleading
  7. Omission of Key Evidence

Causality **

  1. Confusion of a Necessary with a Sufficient Condition
  2. Causal Oversimplification
  3. Post Hoc Fallacy
  4. Confusion of Cause and Effect
  5. Neglect of a Common Cause
  6. Domino Fallacy
  7. Gambler’s Fallacy

Counter-evidence

  1. Denying Counter-evidence
  2. Ignoring the Counter-evidence

Ad Hominem **

  1. Abusive Ad Hominem
  2. Poisoning the Well
  3. Two-Wrongs Fallacy

Diversion

  1. Attacking a Straw Man **
  2. Trivial Objections
  3. Red Herring
  4. Resort to Humor or Ridicule

 

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“Injustice Anywhere is a Threat to Justice Everywhere” – King, Jr.

Joining in 2010, Seungmin is a Founding Member of and Senior Partner at Yonsei ULS. Please be advised: the comment, writing, or column does not represent  the official position of YULS.

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