Fallacies in Arguments

Fallacies in Arguments

  1. Begging the Question **
    1. Arguing in a Circle
    2. Question-begging Language
    3. Complex Question
    4. Question-begging Definition
  2. Inconsistency
    1. Incompatible Premises
    2. Contradiction btw Premise and Conclusion
  3. Deductive Inference
    1. Denying the Antecedent
    2. Affirming the Consequent
    3. False Conversion
    4. Undistributed Middle Term
    5. Illicit Distribution of an End Term
  4. Irrelevance **
    1. Irrelevant Authority **
    2. Appeal to Common Opinion
    3. Genetic Fallacy
    4. Rationalization
    5. Drawing the Wrong Conclusion
    6. Using the Wrong Reasons
  5. Appeal to Emotion
    1. Appeal to Force or Threat
    2. Appeal to Tradition
    3. Appeal to Self-Interest
    4. Playing to the Gallery
  6. Linguistic Confusion
    1. Equivocation
    2. Ambiguity
    3. Misleading Accent
    4. Illicit Contrast
    5. Argument by Innuendo
    6. Misuse of a Vague Expression
    7. Distinction without Difference
  7. Unwarranted Assumption
    1. Fallacy of the Continuum
    2. Fallacy of Composition
    3. Fallacy of Division
    4. False Alternatives
    5. Is-Ought Fallacy
    6. Wishful Thinking
    7. Misuses of a Principle
    8. Fallacy of the Mean
    9. Faulty Analogy
  8. Missing Evidence **
    1. Insufficient Sample
    2. Unrepresentative Data
    3. Arguing from Ignorance
    4. Contrary to Fact Hypothesis
    5. Fallacy of Popular Wisdom
    6. Special Pleading
    7. Omission of Key Evidence
  9. Causality **
    1. Confusion of a Necessary with a Sufficient Condition
    2. Causal Oversimplification
    3. Post Hoc Fallacy
    4. Confusion of Cause and Effect
    5. Neglect of a Common Cause
    6. Domino Fallacy
    7. Gambler’s Fallacy
  10. Counter-evidence
    1. Denying Counter-evidence
    2. Ignoring the Counter-evidence
  11. Ad Hominem **
    1. Abusive Ad Hominem
    2. Poisoning the Well
    3. Two-Wrongs Fallacy
  12. Diversion
    1. Attacking a Straw Man **
    2. Trivial Objections
    3. Red Herring
    4. Resort to Humor or Ridicule

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